Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China 70 years ago in 1949, especially in the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, remarkable achievements have been made in the fight against poverty, and a model of poverty alleviation with Chinese characteristics has been created. Based on the perspective of how poverty generates, the book carries out a pioneering study on the types of poverty in China and makes a systematic theoretical review of China’s rural poverty alleviation and development model. The book for the first time puts forward the concept of social network-based poverty alleviation and endogenous poverty alleviation. Bearing in mind these two concepts, this book sorts out the evolution of China’s policy for development-driven poverty alleviation, and makes a comprehensive theorical study and case study on the innovative mode of China’s rural poverty alleviation from the perspectives of rural political governance, farmer cooperation, microfinance, collective economy, community development, and ecological construction. It provides a new perspective and inspiration for the transformation of China’s development-driven poverty alleviation model in the future. It is informative to the poverty reduction work of other developing countries worldwide.